Tuesday, April 05, 2005


City, capital, and concelho (township), Beja distrito (“district”), southern Portugal, southeast of Lisbon. According to legend, Beja was founded by Ulysses, and it was named Pax Julia by Julius Caesar in 48 BC to commemorate the peace treaty signed in Beja by the Romans and Lusitanians. The city is partly enclosed by walls of Roman origin with two Roman gateways. Afonso I captured

Ghent, Treaty Of

(Dec. 24, 1814), agreement in Belgium between Great Britain and the United States to end the War of 1812 on the general basis of the status quo antebellum (maintaining the prewar conditions). Because the military positions for each side were so well balanced, neither country could obtain desired concessions. No mention was made in the peace settlement of neutral rights, particularly

Monday, April 04, 2005

Sikhism, Sectarian differences

The first dissenters from the mainstream of Sikhism—known as the Udasis—were followers of Nanak's elder son, Sri Chand. The order inclined toward asceticism and later furnished priests (mahants) for gurdwaras. They were ousted from control by the SGPC in 1925. Followers of Ram Rai, who was passed over by his father, Har Rai (seventh Guru), in favour of a younger son, Hari Krishen (eighth Guru), broke

Saturday, April 02, 2005


Any of the Roman historians prior to Livy (1st century BC–1st century AD) who drew up the conventional history of Rome from the foundation of the city. For their sources early Roman historians relied for the most part on the annual tabulae pontificum, or annales, which after 300 BC contained regular records of magistrates' names and public events of religious significance. The early


Town, northwestern Bangladesh. A jute-processing and export centre, it is a major railway terminus containing large railway workshops. It has a college affiliated with the University of Rajshahi. Pop. (1981 prelim.) 128,085.

Shensi, Industry

The major industrial area in Shensi is that centred around Sian. Principal industries in this area include cotton and other textiles, electrical equipment, engineering and chemical manufacturing, and iron and steel production. There are minor centres of industry at Pao-chi and at Shih-ch'üan in the Han Valley, near An-k'ang, and Yao-hsien, near T'ung-ch'uan, has a large and

Friday, April 01, 2005


City, seat (1879) of Spokane county, eastern Washington, U.S., at the falls of the Spokane River. Frequented by trappers when the North West Company built a trading post there in 1810, the site was settled in 1872 and laid out in 1878. Known as Spokane Falls (for the Spokane Indians, whose name means “sun people”), it developed after the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway. Abundant waterpower

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Akutagawa Prize

The Akutagawa Prize was created in 1935 by the

Claudius Pulcher, Appius

From 72 to 70 Claudius served in Anatolia under his brother-in-law, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, in the war against Mithradates VI, king of Pontus. He was praetor in 57, governor in Sardinia in 56–55, and consul in 54. Although Claudius had opposed the return of Cicero from exile in 57, the

Wednesday, March 30, 2005


Any man-made textile fibre produced from the plant substance cellulose. Developed in an attempt to produce silk chemically, the fibre was originally known by such terms as artificial silk and wood silk, but in 1924 it was given the coined name rayon. An anitrocellulose type of rayon, first produced commercially in France in 1891 in the form of a nitrocellulose fibre, was later

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Evans, Rowland

American journalist (b. April 28, 1921, Whitemarsh, Pa.—d. March 23, 2001, Washington, D.C.), advocated conservative causes as a prominent newspaper columnist and television host. With journalist Robert Novak, Evans published a syndicated column, called “Inside Report,” from 1963 to 1993. From 1980 the pair served as cohosts of Cable News Network's political talk show Evans & Novak, which was renamed Evans,